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A spline shafts is a rotating machine element with a circular cross-section that transmits power from a machine that generates it to a machine that absorbs it.

One end of the shaft is connected to the power source, while the other end is connected to the machine for power transmission. Shafts can be solid or hollow, depending on the application; hollow shafts help reduce weight and provide an advantage.

Shafts are an essential component of any machine. They are employed to support rotating parts such as pulleys and gears. Bearings rest in the rigid machine housing and support them. The gears and pulley on the shaft assist in the transmission of motion.

Circular shafts are common for transmitting power because they have uniform stress distribution along any radius of the shaft. After applying a twisting moment, the plane sections of the shaft remain straight. As a result, there is no deformation in shaft sections, and the shaft’s volume does not change.

Importance of spline shafts

Splines are shaft grooves or teeth that match up with grooves or teeth on another component to transmit torque. A spline shaft transmits torque by mating with a female splined bore. or another type of mating component working to obstruct movement in directions other than the configuration’s linear path. A bevel gear mounted on a shaft, for example, might use a male shaft spline that matches the female spline on the gear.

The spline shaft’s most common function is to serve as an anti-rotation device. When functioning in the linear guide positions, this function appears to be occurring. The spline shaft connects to the female version and interlocks to transfer rotatory motion. The construction and type of spline applied to a spline shaft determine its function.

The performance of the functions of a typical spline shaft is often. The reason for this is that splines of the gear are processed into the length of the post. There are various spline models and shapes, each with its own role and function when meshing with the shaft.

Main materials for manufacturing spline shafts 

Metals are typically effective in the manufacture of Splines shafts. The reason is that they can withstand higher loads and stresses than other materials. Every splined shaft contains some of the same materials. These are the following:

  • Stainless steel

Stainless steel is an alloy of steel that consists of chromium or nickel additions. It is extremely wear-resistant and long-lasting. Stainless steel is the best material for splined shafts because it has high tensile strength and resists corrosion.

  • Carbon steel

Because of its malleability, carbon steel is a popular material. Carbon steel has a low carbon content of nearly 1.7 percent. Carbon steel is common in splined shaft engineering because of its valuable properties. The high-quality carbon steel spline shaft contributes to a dependable and smooth motion.

  • Alloy steel

Iron, carbon, nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are all present in ferrous steel alloys. Each alloy contributes to the properties of splined shafts. High-strength low-alloy steels, hardenable high-alloy steels, and a variety of other special alloy steel sheets are among the alloys.

5 primary methods of making spline shafts

There are various methods for producing internal and external spline shafts. Experts use these methods for both types, with a few minor modifications. The primary methods of producing spline shafts are as follows.

  • Broaching

Broaching is the removal of material from any surface using a toothed tool. A broach is a name for the toothed tool. Despite its high cost, broaching is highly effective because it provides precision machining for irregular shapes. In the production of spline shafts, external broaches are useful. They are used to cut furrows on the material’s surface along the length of the shaft.

  • Shaping

Shaping is the traditional method for cutting gear. A piece of incomplete equipment rotates alongside the blank gear. A shaper is a tool for shaping both internal and external teeth. It is a straightforward, dependable, and all-purpose process of gear cutting. The mechanical gear shaper’s complexity ensures that the gear shaping yields a high level of surface finish accuracy.

  • Milling

Milling is the process of removing material from the surface of a workpiece using a milling cutter. Splines use milling cutters because their rotary cutting tool has multiple cutting points. The milling cutter can move perpendicular to a surface, allowing cutting to take place around the edge’s circumference. In addition, spline milling can be useful to transfer power throughout a mechanical system.

  • Hobbing

Gear hobbing is another versatile and widely used method of creating gear. The process of gear hobbing necessitates the use of a special milling machine known as a gear hobbing machine. In comparison to other cutting splines, Hobbing is a relatively inexpensive process. 

The surprising fact is that it is a precise method, and as a result, it is applied to a wide range of situations. Hobbing is only useful for making external spline shafts. The internal spline shaft cannot use this method. Gear hobbing is a versatile process, with the working angle being especially so. It’s not only cheap, but it’s also fairly accurate.

  • Rolling

Some synchronized shapes form on various parts of the shaft during the rolling process. The majority of these shapes are threaded and splined, which speeds up the manufacturing process. As a result, during large-scale production, the comparative phase between the spline and thread remains constant.

  • Grinding

It is a type of abrasive machining. As a cutting tool, it employs a grinding wheel. Grinding is a type of metal cutting. It is commonly used to remove minor surface details. Certainly, grinding is useful in the production of a splined shaft because it is used on different types of steel. Surface grinding is a unique technique that aids in the grinding of post-materials.


In conclusion, the main intent of this topic is to highlight the significance of splined shafts. A spline is a set of teeth or ridges that mesh with the groove to transfer torque. It keeps the angular relationship between the tracks and the shaft. A spline shaft is a mechanical component with multiple functions. It can function as an anti-rotational device while also transmitting torque to any other device. Splines are used in the production of a wide range of products and machinery in a variety of industries. A spline shaft manufacturer is essential in the creation of great machines that are useful in the construction and automation industries.